Depression Symptomology in Men: A Moderation Analysis of Shame Proneness and Financial Difficulty
Shame is an aversive emotion central to men's depressive experiences. Determination of key moderator variables in this relationship may assist to identify men at elevated suicide risk. In the context of the global financial crisis, the current study explored the effects of serious financial difficulty on the relationship between internalised shame and depressive symptomology. Longitudinal data were analysed from 120 males at Time 1, and again 15 weeks later. Results indicated significant proximal and distal effects. Shame-prone men experiencing high levels of financial difficulty were at elevated risk of depressive symptoms at Time 2. Findings are consistent with self-discrepancy theory, and implications are discussed within the context of traditional gender role expectations and help seeking.