ONLY MALE GENITAL MODIFICATION IS A FORM OF CONTROL; The Female Counterpart Originated As A Female-Initiated Competitive Ploy: The Female Counterpart Originated As A Female-Initiated Competitive Ploy

Steve Moxon (


Genital modification functions proximally in both sexes to denude sexual sensitivity, reducing propensity to engage in sex; impacting specifically extra-pair sex. distal function diverges: male GMo is controlling (lowering young males’ competitiveness with high-status males for young females), whereas female GMo is ‘honest signaling’ of future fidelity (in contest for high-genetic-quality pair-bond partners). Only FGMo originated as a benefit for ‘cut’ individuals. FGMo is both performed and advocated overwhelmingly by females, and does not serve alpha males (in that they can have few concerns about partner fidelity), actually dis-benefiting them (because of impaired sexual receptivity of current and potential pair-bond and extra-pair sex partners). With no basis for male imposition (‘male control’) to explain FGMo, it can only be intra-sexual.

Keywords: genital modification, genital cutting, genital mutilation, MGMo, FGMo, extra-pair sex, male control, sexual sensitivity, honest signalling

Author Biography

Steve Moxon researches the biological roots of human sociality, with a special interest in the sexes. The author of The Woman Racket: The New Science Explaining How the Sexes Relate at Work, Play and in Society (Imprint Academic), Sex Difference Explained (NMS Publishing), and his subsequent cross-disciplinary review papers for scientific and other academic journals offer novel theories on topics regarding major sex differences; all emanating from a new understanding of the origin of the sexes.

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